Phase 1

The original participants involved primary school children with a mean age at baseline of 9 years. There was a total of 2267 Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants from across urban, regional and remote New South Wales. The traditional risk factors (hypertension, obesity, albuminuria) for chronic disease were common but transient for both groups.

Phase 2

This phase of ARDAC has shown that the prevalence of risk factors for chronic kidney and cardiovascular disease - proteinuria, albuminuria, hypertension, obesity - are not increased in aboriginal children compared with non- Aboriginal children from the same geographical areas. However, as participants enter into adolescence disparity between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants start to appear. For instance, Aboriginal girls are more likely to be overweight or obese and are therefore more likely to have albuminuria, increasing their risk of developing kidney disease.

Phase 3

During this phase we have endeavoured to validate previous findings of an emerging difference between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants by following them into adulthood and by including the social determinants. To enable this to happen we continue to work with Aboriginal community controlled health services across New South Wales to carry out kidney health screenings in the community. This phase of collaboration will deliver the evidence-base for the prevention and management of kidney problems, heart disease and diabetes for the future.